COMPLAINTS OF THE PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS AND ACTIVE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS AND EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS INFECTION; THEIR DIAGNOSTIC VALUE
Actuality. The infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is of particular interest to researchers. SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by multisystemic lesions and is potentially life-threatening [1, 2, 3]. The severity of the problem is caused by the fact that active viral infection can change the manifestations of SLE, but these changes are not always specific, so primary care physicians have no reason to suspect active virus infection at the first stage of examination of SLE patients and prescribe expensive direct virological tests accordingly. It has not been definitively established yet which complaints are the most meaningful regarding the presence of active viral infection in patients with SLE.
The purpose of the research was to study complaints in SLE patients with active cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection and determine their diagnostic value. Materials and methods. We randomly enrolled 120 SLE patients – 15 men (12.50%) and 105 women (87.50%) aged 18 to 69 years. All patients received treatment at the Rheumatology Department of Lviv Regional Clinical Hospital in 2014-2019. The diagnosis of SLE was established based on the diagnostic criteria of the American College of Rheumatologists (ACR, 1997). In addition, IgM and IgG antibodies to serum viruses were detected for the diagnosis of CMV and EBV infection. To confirm the presence of active viral infection, viruses were detected in media (CMV - urine, blood; EBV - oral mucosa, blood) by polymerase chain reaction, resulting in 28 patients with SLE (23.33%) detected active CMV infection, in 21 patients with SLE (17.50%) - active EBV infection and in 15 patients with SLE (12.5%) - a combination of active CMV and EBV infection. To achieve the purpose of the study, we identified three steps: the first step was to analyze complaints in patients with SLE with active CMV infection and determine their diagnostic value, the second - in the analysis of complaints in patients with SLE with active EBV infection and clarify their diagnostic values and the third - in the analysis of complaints in patients with SLE with a combination of active CMV and EBV infection and clarification of their diagnostic value. We identified three steps: the first step was to analyze complaints in patients with SLE with active CMV infection and determine their diagnostic value, the second - in the analysis of complaints in patients with SLE with active EBV infection and clarify their diagnostic values and the third - in the analysis of complaints in patients with SLE with a combination of active CMV and EBV infection and clarification of their diagnostic value.
Statistical analysis was performed by calculating the chances of establishing the phase of CMV and EBV infection in patients with SLE, using a separate feature - a marker that can be detected during the initial examination of the patient. The probable probability of active infection was determined using indicators of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy . The actual material was processed on a personal computer in MS Excel and SPSS on the basis of conjugation tables with calculation of diagnostic value indicators. The association between active infection and a particular patient complaint was considered to be confirmed when the coefficient of association exceeded 0.5 (or 0.3 for the coefficient of contingency). Research results. It was found that in patients with SLE the presence of active cytomegalovirus infection among the main complaints significantly more often indicate the presence of myalgias (coefficient of association 0.79) or fever (0.51), or chills of the extremities (0.51), or arthralgia (coefficient of contingent 0.31). The presence of active virus Epstein - Barr infections are significantly more often evidenced by the presence of myalgias (coefficient of contingent 0.31) or sleep disorders (coefficient of association 0.84), or mood swings (0.74), or fever (0.61), or the appearance of new rashes (0.53). On the presence of a combination of active cytomegalovirus and virus Epstein - Barr infections significantly more often indicate complaints of sleep disturbances (coefficient of association 0.97) or mood swings (0.83), or a feeling of dryness in the eyes (0.51), or fever (0.50). Conclusions. The presence of active cytomegalovirus infection in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus among the main complaints often indicates the presence of myalgias or fever, or chills of the extremities, or arthralgia, the presence of active virus Epstein - Barr infection - myalgia or sleep disturbances, or mood swings, or fever, or the appearance of new rashes, the presence of their combination - sleep disturbances or mood swings, or a feeling of dryness in the eyes, or fever, which can be used in the diagnostic algorithm. The established patterns of complaints allow us to reasonably suspect in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus the presence of active cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection, the final verification of which requires the use of direct serological tests.
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